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Sophisticated Invalid Traffic

According to the Media Ratings Council, ‘Sophisticated Invalid Traffic’ or SIVT, consists of more difficult to detect situations that require advanced analytics, multi-point corroboration/coordination, significant human intervention, etc., to analyse and identify. These may include:

  • Automated browsing from a dedicated device: Known automation systems (e.g., monitoring/testing), emulators, custom automation software and tools;
  • Automated browsing from a non-dedicated device: infected and hijacked devices (and sessions within) as well as incentivised automated activity;
  • Incentivised human invalid activity: self-directed activity to benefit self or harm others;
  • Manipulated activity: Forced new browser window opening, forced tab opening, forced mobile application install (mobile re-direct), forced clicking behaviour, tricking users to click / accidental clicks, clickjacking (UI redress attack) and hijacked measurement events;
  • Falsified measurement events: visit, impression, viewability, click, location, referrer, conversion attribution and user attribute spoofing as well as server-side ad insertion (SSAI) spoofing where applicable to a measurement organisation;
  • Domain and App misrepresentation: App ID spoofing, domain laundering and falsified domain/site location;
  • Bots and spiders or other crawlers masquerading as legitimate users detected via sophisticated means;
  • Hijacked ad tags and creatives (specific to ads);
  • Hidden/stacked/covered/transparent/invisible or otherwise intentionally obfuscated ad serving such as Z-order stacking, banner stuffing, transparent ads and background cycling and pop-under with auto-close (specific to ads);
  • Invalid proxy traffic (originating from an intermediary proxy device that exists to manipulate traffic counts or create/pass-on invalid traffic or otherwise failing to meet protocol validation);
  • Adware and Malware that conduct deceptive actions including ad injection and unauthorized overlays;
  • Incentivised manipulation of measurement (invalid incentivised promotion of an entity, without its knowledge or permission such as shilling or for purposes of manipulating measurement – excludes cases where the entity paying for the incentive is the entity being promoted);
  • Misappropriated (pirated or stolen) content (where used to purposefully falsify traffic at a material level);
  • Cookie stuffing, recycling or harvesting (inserting, deleting or misattributing cookies thereby manipulating or falsifying prior activity of users); and
  • Differentiating valid and IVT traffic when originating from the same or similar source in certain closely intermingled circumstances.